The Expansion of Universe
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In early July, 1998, this article was registered at the Cartório de Títulos e Documentos de São José do Rio Preto, São Paulo State, Brazil. That was before the VLT (Very Large Telescope) in Chili, was operational. Undermining the thinking of the entire scientific community, studies carried out soon after the VLT was put in operation, during the second semester of 1998, have shown that Universe expands at an increasing rate. In January, 1999, SCIENTIFIC AMERICAN published a paper comprised of three articles based on recent work at the VLT. This work indicated that expansion of Universe increases rather than to decrease, as everyone had thought. This fact contradicts Newton´s Law of Universal Gravitation. Generalization of the Law of Universal Gravitation is inevitable. To this date, no proposal on this issue has come to my knowledge. I have tried hard to publish the present article. In vain. Even now, eight years after I wrote it, the astounding information it contains is still of current interest.
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To dare and dream... .........................................................................................
Man, entirely imprisoned in Space and Time, dares have the will to understand its Universe. A Universe, 18 thousand million years old, seen by a being who has been lucid for no more than 50 years. In a Universe of more than 50 thousand million galaxies, each of which comprises more than 10 thousand million Suns, we are less than cosmic dust. But we dream of the creation of the Universe... .........................................................................................
In this spirit of sheer audaciousness, let us think of the moment when Universe emerged. I do believe in the Big Bang theory, although its conjecture is not essential. Quite frequently, matter particles are created or destroyed in the presence of their corresponding antiparticles. This makes me believe that, upon creation of our universe in compliance with a rule of existential mass conservation, matter and antimatter were created at the same time. .........................................................................................
I make a distinction between three types of masses. .........................................................................................
In the first place is the basic mass that gives existence to the particle proper. Just as a reminder, let us think of the hydrogen nucleus, a proton at rest. In the second place we have the state mass, or energy level, of the particle as structure of an atom. That same proton, in a helium nucleus, has a delta m of mass, in this case negative, for being inside a helium nucleus. I may state an other example: the electron, in different layers, has different levels of energy. Now, as mass is energy, it must have different masses at the different layers. In the third place we have mass due to the mechanical energy of the particle. The same proton, stripped of its electron, can be accelerated. Now it is no longer at rest and undergoes an increase of mass. Although these three kinds of mass are not different from each other from a mechanical point of view, they are different by nature. From a mechanical point of view they are equal by the fact that they are masses. A fundamental difference to be observed is that the mass of state may take on well defined values that do not vary continuously, whereas the mass due to energy undergoes continuous variation. A further great difference is that existential mass is not a child of state or mechanical energy, but the creation of an antiparticle, following an existential mass conservation rule. .........................................................................................
Hence, at the moment when the Creation of the Universe occurred, antimatter must have been created in equivalent quantities. .........................................................................................
But where, in our Universe, may this antimatter be?
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Our limited lab experiments have shown that matter and antimatter, when in contact, equal energy. Where may all the antimatter of Universe be kept, prohibited? Prohibited by whom, to enter in contact with matter?
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Among the forces we know, field forces are characterized by the fact that they are proportional to the masses, and inversely proportional to the square of the distance, i.e., they are field forces. .........................................................................................

where m may either be mass, electric charge or magnetic mass with respect to the gravitational, electrical or magnetic fields, respectively. Now, for the electric and magnetic fields, the force will be either attractive or repulsive, depending on the nature of m. Throughout our experiments with gravitational fields, we have always encountered attraction forces.
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And why is there no gravitational repulsion?
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At the time being I suggest that the only possible way for matter and antimatter to coexist in our Universe - if m2 is antimatter - is that gravitational force changes its direction. .........................................................................................
In other words, if antimatter would repel matter. .........................................................................................
In primordial times, huge squirts of protons and antiprotons, mutually repelling each other, constituted the masses of hydrogen and anti-hydrogen making up the clouds of primordial gas. The rest of the story everybody knows... .........................................................................................
It appears to be no more than a mere exchange of signals, but the consequences of this theory would allow us to understand our Universe a lot better. Let us check on just a few of its consequences:
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Our knowledge of mechanics allows us to understand that, if an explosion occurs in an isolated system, the center of gravity of the system will remain static. As the forces of the gravitational field will act upon all parts that have or have not come off, and, depending upon the mechanical energy of the system, a reunification will occur or not: the Big Crunch. .........................................................................................
As far as our universe is concerned, one might say:
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  • the location of the initial explosion could easily be defined;
  • the galaxies would be in continuous deceleration.
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    However, none of this is taking place. .........................................................................................
    Gravitational repulsive forces would turn the movement of galaxies much more complex.
    And as equivalent masses of matter and antimatter must have developed, the resultant of universal forces in each galaxy would be in the sense of continuous expansion. Individual movement of each galaxy with respect to the whole would be extremely complex. Depending on the nature of neighboring galaxies, the Universe would be a real whirlpool.
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    And that is what is taking place. .........................................................................................
    But this will not impede some fragment of antimatter to enter galaxies consisting of matter. The bigger the mass, the smaller is the probability that this may happen, since repulsion will be stronger. .........................................................................................
    What would happen if a small meteorite consisting of antimatter met matter in a frontal collision? There would be an enormous explosion of energy. Last century, an enormous explosion occurred in Siberia, causing destruction over hundreds of kilometers round. No meteor that might have caused this explosion was ever encountered. It may have been a small fragment of antimatter. It should be pointed out that no one ever found and trace of radioactivity in the area, while the explosion was more powerful than the most powerful of our stupid atomic bombs. .........................................................................................
    During the uncountable encounters of micro-meteorites of matter and antimatter, release of tremendous quantities of energy would occur to such an extent as to justify the ever-present cosmic rays, while encounters of more massive bodies would cause explosions of the magnitude of that of a supernova. Note that this would be a titanic explosion taking place outside a star. It would set free so much energy that nothing equal could ever be encountered in any type of nuclear reaction that occur in the stars.
    I do believe that this does happen.
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    Many equally important consequences have occurred. In astrophysics, by the fact that a neutron star in a galaxy of matter is not equivalent to its twin in a galaxy of antimatter, immediately occurs that the matter neutron is different from the antimatter neutron. Just remember that a material neutron decays into a proton, so an antimatter neutron would decay into an antiproton. It is my belief that this theory is of great value to modern physics. .........................................................................................
    Sustentation of what I suggest is not difficult. One merely needs to watch two galaxies that, when meeting, show obvious signs of repulsion. Warped spirals in the area where the galaxies meet may evidence repulsion which, to this date, has no physical explanation. I therefore call upon all astronomers in the world to search for galaxies in such conditions, and to tell me whether this is a dream, or the fruit of better human understanding of Universe!
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    .
    Ubatuba, June 29th 1998.

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