A Short Step Toward the Unified Field
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Dedicated to Professor Doctor Claudio Zak Dib
Physics Institute of São Paulo University
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In a former paper headed "Dawn of a New Era - Antigravity" currently published on my web site, I have advocated that all the forces that are known to us are field forces, as a matter of fact. Field forces change the shape of three-dimensional space, and such deformations appear to be the cause of these forces in a process of reciprocity. I still have much to write about this issue. In this paper, however, I intend to take but a short step toward the unified field theory. .........................................................................................
According to Albert Einstein´s teachings, 'space' should be spelled E(x,y,z,t). In other words, as a function of the three metric co-ordinates X, Y, Z, while t, stands for 'time'. .........................................................................................
Without feeling any sorry for my readers, I would like to write: E(X,Y,Z,t,T,G,E,H,N). I am speaking about the three metric co-ordinates, about time, absolute temperature, the gravitational field, the electric field, the magnetic field and the nuclear field. .........................................................................................
I do not feel any sorry, for matter is not limited to these nine co-ordinates; there are more, but for the time being we will not mention them. .........................................................................................
Let us quickly check just a few. .........................................................................................
Apart from the four co-ordinates that are widely known, and as I have suggested in previous papers, matter, as we know it, is also confined in a positive absolute temperature bracket. We may get as close as we want to Absolute Zero. Negative temperatures, however, are a matter of antimatter. .........................................................................................
My view is that temperature is not only a measurement unit to express the energy of matter, but a new co-ordinate as well. .........................................................................................
The purpose of this paper is to suggest that the co-ordinates of matter - not only the co-ordinates of our three-dimensional space – are, somehow, interrelated. Undoubtedly there are limits in hyperspace within which matter, as we know it, is confined. .........................................................................................
Let us have a look at Absolute Temperature. We do not feel quite comfortable as yet when we have to cope with time-related concepts. Temporal, or chronic, dimensions still seem to be very abstract, and we still have the illusion that Absolute Time is something real, like the flick of a maestro´s baton. It is not. If we think it over properly we may come to the conclusion that, insofar as Absolute Temperature draws near to zero, time ticks lengthier as compared to our perception of time. Scientific experiments have proven, and we have begun to accept, that the tick-tock of the relativistic clock ticks at a different rate than ours. Let´s imagine a frozen embryo. Biologists may say that the embryo will remain preserved for a longer period of time if its temperature is as close as possible to Absolute Zero.
Dear friends, this is exactly the same as saying that the embryo´s time ticks by more slowly! Seen from this new point of view, the duration of preservation by freezing should not be measured by our conventional clocks.
Brazil has approved a law that allows discarding frozen embryos considered 'old'. Although it is for good sake, it gives me a strange feeling to see a country approve immolation of human embryos to conduct trunk cell research while imposing severe restrictions on the use of animals for scientific experimentation.
Our descendents will regard such laws as deceiving and barbarism.
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The concept of time prevails over the principles of ethics. .........................................................................................
The relationship between the electric field and the magnetic field are well known through the Maxwell Equations, so it will not be necessary to repeat. The only important remark we should make a priori is a slight change to one of the Maxwell Equations (Faraday´s Law) to accept electromagnetic radiation of antimatter. It is a matter of a simple signal. This issue has been dealt with briefly in 'Belight', an article to be found on my website. A great many things remain to be said about it, among which we have the direction of the energy flux, an explanation of the phenomenon from a thermodynamics point of view, conservation of energy, etc.
It should be pointed out that electromagnetic radiations of antimatter, even if outside the belight (anti-light) bracket, follow the same rules as belight.
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I attended mechanical engineering classes at a college that may be considered the best in Latin America. Once, I and a few fellow students chatted with our physics teacher. I said that all those UFO stories were absolutely ridiculous. I was about to try to explain some mechanics-related equations I had learned, to evidence that it should be impossible for UFOs to move the way they reportedly did. .........................................................................................
Our physics teacher, certainly a great master, phlegmatically said "impossible on the basis of what you know about physics!"
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These words, spoken by my teacher I sincerely admired, touched me profoundly. I meditated much about the words of my master. He had taught me the most important lessen I had ever been taught: always keep your mind open to the unknown. There may be things that I do not know. Open-mindedness is the only way for us to gain knowledge; all the rest is ignorance and intolerance. .........................................................................................
In science, experience has the last word. What has been evidenced by experiments must be taken into consideration. And if this does not match our concepts, our concepts should be updated. .........................................................................................
In this paper I further consider that there are limits to force field deformation (in hyperspace). There are truncated reports of low credibility on gravitational field anomalies observed during experiments under very low temperatures and/or intense electric/magnetic fields. In my opinion, this issue should be investigated to a deeper extent. The limits of anything possible within our three-dimensional space will be discovered, I believe. (more limits).
I strongly recommend that the Meissner effect as well as the quite curious aberrations of liquid helium behavior be given deeper consideration, currently in the light of recent hyperspace concepts.
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Minor aberrations may open up new horizons to science.
If one day we may observe limits to field forces (electro-magnetic and gravitational forces), such knowledge may allow us to build vehicles similar to those we use to refer to as UFO´s, designed for surface traveling as well as for journeys to outer space.
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Here I would like to depart somewhat from the main subject, and make some considerations about black holes. Obviously, the Universal Gravitation Law as we know it does not remain valid in the case the black holes. If it would, black holes would not be able to "swallow" nearby stars; these would either remain in elliptical or circular orbits, like the planets of the solar system, or remain on very distorted orbits, like our comets. Upon getting closer to the black hole, acceleration of comets would be such that inertia would not allow them to "fall" into the black hole. Now let us suppose that, in hyperspace, due to certain limitation, deformation follows other rules (equations). The Laws of Gravitation as we know them do not apply, so it will have become possible for stars and entire galaxies to be swallowed in. This would be the only possibility. .........................................................................................
Still, the increasing deformation of the shape deformation of hyperspace caused by the gravitational field may attain such limits that the gravity of the black hole is no longer proportional to its mass. Under these conditions of saturation we may think of a destabilization of the black hole and perhaps even of the explosion of a supernova, which would be the extinction of the black hole... .........................................................................................
The theory of relativity has originated from an aberration related to the speed of light. Right from the earliest measuring, it was found that the speed of light does not obey the rules of motions set forth by Galileo. The speed of light appeared to be constant, which took genius Einstein to the conclusion that the speed of light is the highest speed ever possible: the utmost speed. .........................................................................................
Now let me ask you:
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- May the speed of light be a limit in our three-dimensional space that harbors matter as it is known to us?
Is this limit just the first one among various that remain to be surveyed and identified through new mathematical formulas?
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Einstein has needed no more than simple algebraic equations to make a description of the theory of restricted relativity. Perhaps we are not to expect any major mathematical complexity. .........................................................................................
As regards nuclear forces, we cannot but admit, as a matter of fact, that we are still in the kindergarten. Nuclear forces are the most intense forces ever known, the so-called strong interactions.
Seen from our point of view, these would be the major cause of the deformation of our three-dimensional space, and further having as an additional characteristic that they are short range forces.
Unfortunately – as I set forth in a paper I had written for the Royal Society – knowledge involving nuclear physics has become military matter and, therefore, highly confidential. As a result, nuclear physics has progressed but very little during the last fifty years. As all the great minds dedicated to this subject matter have advanced in years and many have passed away, one may observe an opening that allows younger researchers to gain insight on the matter and, perhaps, become new nuclear physics experts.
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Two concepts that can be encountered in books issued before 1950 have been 'forgotten' since: chain reaction, and critical mass. .........................................................................................
Fission is the division of an atomic nucleus in two different parts. A hydrogen nucleus, composed of one single proton that does not require any neutron to be stable. Uranium (238) has 92 protons and 146 neutrons. That is nearly 1.6 neutrons to each proton. A nucleus with a higher number of protons requires more neutrons to provide its stability. The helium nucleus has two protons and two neutrons. That is a one-to-one relationship.
When a heavy nucleus splits, the resulting nuclei, as a rule, will require fewer neutrons. In other words, there may be an excess of neutrons. Even better than that, these excess neutrons may be caught by other nuclei and destabilized, so a new division takes places. This is a statistic process. When fission of a nucleus is followed by more than one fission, we have what we call a chain reaction.
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Under which conditions can liberated neutrons be used for new fissions? That depends on the mass (quantity) of fissile material. For the sake of simplicity and to facilitate computations and simulations, if required, we will imagine a spherical fissile mass. If and when that sphere is small, the neutrons may escape and a substantial part of these may get lost in the environment.
Statistically, if and when exactly a fission causes a new fission, we may say that the sphere has a critical mass.
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In nuclear reactors used for power generation, we try to maintain critical mass conditions. Many means, the description of which would be too long to fit into this paper, are used to limit fission to just one. Should the reactor bring forth more than one fission upon each splitting, the situation will be as what is known as supercritical. The reactor will blow up!
Nuclear warheads are built that way: two subcritical halves are kept apart. They unite upon blasting and the nuclear explosion occurs.
All such information is to be found in books edited before 1960. Barring this knowledge, no substantial discovery is considered classified matter today.
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In his book "A Física dos Explosivos Nucleares – 2008", Dalton E. G. Barraso, research worker at "Centro Tecnológico do Exército (CTEx)" (Technology Center of the Brazilian Army) releases bits of important information that had remained hidden for more than half a century. The disclosure that most shocked me is the statement that matter, when exposed to very high pressure, say above 50,000 bar, behaves like compressible fluid. .........................................................................................
This know-how has been used to build smaller bombs.
Compressing fissile material lessens the value of critical mass. Neighboring nuclei interact more, and less mass is needed to trigger off an explosion. Makes sense.
Other sources also indicate that the critical mass of plutonium is approximately 10 kg.
The Americans built briefcases containing an atomic bomb. So, if the critical mass of plutonium is around 10 Kg (that of uranium is much higher), it will not fit into a briefcase together with its shielding and firing gear. Hence, there must be a way to blow up a much smaller mass of plutonium. As a matter of fact, highly explosive chemicals are used to compress the plutonium to the point at which it reaches the conditions of critical mass.
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This information is of paramount importance for an specific segment of physics. .........................................................................................
Consider our planet Earth. If we would dig a hole towards the center, we would soon reach a point where these pressure values prevail. One bar is the pressure of a water column of approximately 10m in height (atmospheric pressure). Presuming a liquid having a density of 2.5, which is the density of the Earth´s crust, a column of 4m would be sufficient. Hence, at a depth of 200km, which is still in the crust, the pressure would be 50,000bar. The diameter of Earth exceeds 10,000km. .........................................................................................
Conclusion, my friend: the magma inside the Earth is highly compressed!
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Following exactly the same ratiocination that has led to building a handbag inside of which is an atomic bomb, we may believe that nuclear reactions are taking place in the center of our planet. That would justify the fact that Earth is, roughly speaking, a huge ball of fire. Comparing Earth to an egg, the Earth´s crust is an eggshell inside of which is "fire"!
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I have written many times that we are fighting wars to get hold of energy, while we are sitting on a ball of fire. This discovery is not mine. At the beginning of last century, Nicolas Tesla advocated the use of geothermal energy to generate electric power at nearly no cost. I have known about these facts for many years and I was afraid to publicize it because of the economic interests at stake. Oil, as a matter of fact, is the raw material that generates most business worldwide. .........................................................................................
Based on other theoretical considerations which are not dealt with in this paper, I have happened to imagine Earth as a giant nuclear reactor...
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I remember that, about ten years ago, when I worked as a visiting researcher at 'Instituto de Química' of the 'Universidade de São Paulo' I once said to Chair Professor Dr. Gilberto O. Chierice that mankind had a huge source of low-cost energy generated by an enormous nuclear reactor, right below our feet. He cast a long, inquiring look on me, yet without the slightest doubt that I meant it literally. .........................................................................................
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