Back

...........................................................
This paper was sent to the Royal Society, where it received ID=RSPA 2008-0324. Although it was not approved for publication, the author feel most honoured and is deeply grateful for the mere fact that his article has been checked and rated by the editors of the most important Science Academy in the World. It was founded in 1660 and has had several of the most famous names of the history of physics among its members. ......................................................................................... Oh, Muse, inspire me and instruct me how I can disclose the secrets of Hyperspace to Mankind. I know Hyperspace holds the power of Prometheus´ mythological fire. Men, be wiser this time, and humbler! I ask the supreme divinity for forgiveness, and not to be punished like Prometheus, who was punished although he had not committed any misdeed beyond disclosing the secrets of fire to Mankind. It was meant to benefit, not to harm, Humanity. ......................................................................................... There is no way to overstate the importance of understanding Hyperspace. Hyperspace is more important for the History of mankind than human dominion over fire. ......................................................................................... If we take four wooden legs and some boards of appropriate length and a handful of nails, we are far from having a table. Somewhat more is needed to make it a table; someone has to build the table. Legs, boards and nails have to be put together to become a new thing. That new thing, the table, has properties none of its components has. We can sit at the table to have a meal in full comfort, a feature none of its components offers, not even in part.uito distante de qualquer uma de suas partes. ......................................................................................... Spaces of n dimensions have been known since the 19th Century.
They show their power when studying tensors. They used to
be considered nearly a mathematical curiosity, completely
abstract and useless, as they had nothing in common with
our reality. The rules of Vectorial Spaces do perfectly
apply to spaces of n dimensions, and, even so, we have no
way to draw a figure in a Cartesian system of four,
mutually orthogonal, axes.
.........................................................................................
Something was still missing: the concepts. The concepts had still to be set up. ......................................................................................... The discovery of Hyperspace reveals that we are plunged in Hyperspace and stuck to three dimensions. Once we realise that what is there is Cosmos, and that the dimensions of Cosmos are infinite, things make a different sense. We begin to understand the meaning of many things we had not been able to check upon through the eyes of Science. Science can broaden our vision through Religion, or through the truths religions have been teaching us for millennia. Philosophy, however, obliges us face new challenges. We even have to change our way of looking upon animals. ......................................................................................... Once again, Man is becoming smaller and more insignificant. ......................................................................................... Above all, the way we practices science is changing. ......................................................................................... Quantic Physics has come forth from the discovery that the electron can merely assume certain well-defined values of energy in its orbit around a hydrogen nucleus. The word 'quantic' is derived from the Latin 'quantum'. This does in no way mean that there is a unit of minimum energy or so. It just means that certain energy levels correspond to stable values, for any other would make the electron irradiate. ) The electron radiates the exact quantity of energy it has in excess, so it will perfectly match the values of permissible energy. Many implications of this simple fact can be observed in nature. The consequences, rather strange at times, are, as a whole, referred to as Quantic Physics. ......................................................................................... Quantic physics is the physics of uncertainty, gently referred to by the mathematicians as Physics of Statistics. Probabilities hide our ignorance. ......................................................................................... I would like to draw you a picture. ......................................................................................... Imagine a man who cannot look but to the ground. ......................................................................................... He can perceive birds only when they cast their shadows on the ground. ......................................................................................... With time, he will be able to make a difference between the shadow of a pigeon and the shadow of a falcon. How will he know when the falcon catches the pigeon, while he is looking only to the ground? ......................................................................................... There is no way to; for he lacks the information on altitude. ......................................................................................... As time goes by, he will set up statistics. ......................................................................................... When the shadow of the falcon rushes at a given speed in the direction of the shadow of the pigeon, chances of collision are high. ......................................................................................... This is all he will be able to say. ......................................................................................... Why? ......................................................................................... For lack of information. ......................................................................................... The haziness of Quantic Physics is a consequence of our ignorance with respect to what there is beyond the three dimensions. A day may come when Man will be able to access conditions beyond our three dimensions. Uncertainties will cease to exist. Until that day, Man will have to change his way of performing science. One plus one will not be two all the time. One day, we shall know why. ......................................................................................... The discovery of multidimensionalism of time (so obvious!) revolutionises our concept of time completely. ......................................................................................... Everything is present. ......................................................................................... Although, once again, we are confined in a single dimensional of time that imperatively runs ahead and becomes future. A creature, upon which no limitations of Matter are imposed, is capable to see the moment of our birth and, broadening its vision, see the moment of our death simultaneously. ......................................................................................... Our human nature requires something beyond just matter to explain premonition. Once everything is present, limitations are merely related to matter. Some immaterial thing that we have in us can see the future. This has been verified scientifically. Dogs know when their masters are about to get home. This may appear impossible, however, scientific evidence has been observed. Thus, dogs, and, by extension animals, have something beyond matter. We should see with different eyes the verities we are taught by Buddhism. And... animals. ......................................................................................... Mankind will make many fantastic discoveries. ......................................................................................... For the academic world, the discovery of hyperspace closes the era of materialism. From now on, men of science shall live with the uncertainty of Cosmos, completely unknown at the present time. There are ancient speculations on contributions from extraterrestrial beings; quests have been conducted to find out how ancient peoples all of a sudden obtained knowledge they had not the slightest condition to. They carried out construction jobs under the guidance of the unknown. ......................................................................................... The ancient Greek said that the mathematicians, the poets and other men of science could achieve their work because they were possessed by the gods. Today, spiritism teaches us that we can psychograph. Both these explanations are very similar, though resting on very different bases. I heard of the report about a great Portuguese-speaking poet who claimed that his writings were not his. When inspiration came, he would sit down in front of a sheet of paper, holding some writing instrument, and swoon. When he recovered consciousness, beautiful things would be written on the paper, although he would not comprehend them properly. Insulin was discovered in a dream. Uncountable scientific discoveries were made under similar conditions, under conditions we use to refer to as 'inspiration'. It is quite possible that inspiration is nothing else but assistance received from Cosmos. I always used to consider myself a humble messenger, well conscious of the fact that the message I am carrying is not mine. I see myself rather as a prophet than as a scientist. ......................................................................................... One just needs to learn Hypergeometry to start exploring Hyperspace. ......................................................................................... Merely as a starter, just to show the avail of the hyperspace concept, we should have a closer look at field forces. ......................................................................................... Nothing stirs scientists´ curiosity more than forces. ......................................................................................... Nothing is more exciting, more challenging... ......................................................................................... The traditional definition of force reads: 'any cause capable of changing the shape and/or the motion or stoppage of motion, of a body'. ......................................................................................... Albert Einstein conducted thorough studies of gravitational force. Einstein said that the gravitational field deforms space. Unfortunately, he did not know either Hypergeometry or Hyperspace and thus could not formulate this concept mathematically. Speaking about deformation of our space sends us to the fourth dimension, at least. Furthermore, he spent a major part of his later life in search of the Unified Field Theory. I strongly believe that this study will be another contribution in this sense. ......................................................................................... In "Field Theory", Professor Lev Davidovich Landau gives a very good description of field forces. Like most Europeans, Landau was an accomplished mathematics genius; he formulated his concepts in a manner that made them accessible only to few. Mathematics, however, is merely a model, a limited model, through which we try to describe a physical phenomenon. We should not get entangled in mathematical labyrinths, nor should we reject the helping hand of mathematics. Let us use it only as much as needed, Saint Thomas Aquinas may have said. ......................................................................................... I tell you: any force deforms space; any force is a field effect. ......................................................................................... But let us begin at the beginning. ......................................................................................... Let us analyse two field forces: the electrical force, and the gravitational force.Equations are exactly the same for both, except for one constant. ......................................................................................... Let us take a deeper look at electrical, or electrostatic force. ......................................................................................... There are two types of charges: the positive and the negative. Many materials can be charged with electricity just by rubbing them. It is called triboelectricity. Experimenting with electrified materials (the first material ever electrified is amber), we soon discover that there are two types of electrification, each one corresponding to a different type of electrical charges. Using the electrostatic pendulum consisting of a small piece of snowball core suspended from a very thin thread that charges upon touching any electrified material, we may discover the axioms of electrostatics: ......................................................................................... With these principles in mind and the fundamental equation of electrostatics: ......................................................................................... we should be in a position to conduct a thorough study of electrostatics. ......................................................................................... With the help of Hyperspace, I should add something. Now here is the field equation for a charge q. ......................................................................................... in which F and E are vectors.
.........................................................................................
From a hyperspace point of view, field E deforms our
three-dimensional space. It is a deformation in the fourth
dimension, causing a nearly geometrical perturbation to
occur to charge q.
.........................................................................................
Such perturbation can be explained as follows: ......................................................................................... Let us suppose a common dining table. ......................................................................................... Cover it with a table cloth and serve a meal. ......................................................................................... The table cloth surface is much like a plane. ......................................................................................... Consider three points on the cloth. ......................................................................................... We can now draw a triangle joining the three points and verify, in this triangle, all the properties of triangles we have learned during Euclidian geometry class. ......................................................................................... Now put a hazelnut on the table, under the cloth. ......................................................................................... Look at the cloth. ......................................................................................... Where the hazelnut lies under the cloth, there is a bulge, a disturbance of geometrical properties of its surface. ......................................................................................... A little ant (an essentially two-dimensional creature) is walking on the cloth and perhaps does not perceive the bulge due to the hazelnut. ......................................................................................... Now, let us consider that our little ant is a geometrician knowing a lot about Euclidian Geometry. Incidentally, our geometry ant delineates a triangle on the cloth; in such a way that one of the sides of the triangles lies on the bulge due to the nut. ......................................................................................... Poor little ant! ......................................................................................... It will certainly not be able to check, on this triangle, the geometrical properties it knows. ......................................................................................... This is exactly what happens to us in relation to Fields. Albert Einstein has taught us that the gravitational field distorts space. ......................................................................................... Apparently, nothing is happening to us. However, some very strange things do happen. The simple fact that light deviates in the area of a large gravitational field (a scientifically proven fact) indicates that something strange is taking place. ......................................................................................... Yes, Einstein was right: space distorts under the action of gravitational fields. ......................................................................................... Now I am telling you: electrical fields also distort space. ......................................................................................... And I do not need the proof. ......................................................................................... We know that opposed electrical charges attract each other. From a hyperspace point of view, opposite deformations of opposed signal charges make them express an attraction force, whereas a deformation in the same sense would demonstrate a repulsive force. Still from a Hyperspace point of view, and seeing in the fourth dimension, and attributing to the fourth dimension a Cartesian axis E, we may say that a positive charge
would induce a deformation in the positive sense of axis
E, and a negative charge would cause a deformation
in the negative sense of axis E. This provides us
with a representation of what happens in space
(in four dimensions), in the vicinity of an electric charge.
.........................................................................................
The first fact that we have learned about Hyperspace is that a field force distorts our three-dimensional space.
.........................................................................................
This has provided us with a new physics model: Field forces may distort our three-dimensional space, and such forces may be associated with such deformation. ......................................................................................... To this point, the model seems to have little practicality. ......................................................................................... Let us now have a look at gravitational force. ......................................................................................... The equation of universal gravitation may be written as follows: ......................................................................................... As mentioned before, this equation is exactly equal to the equation of electrostatics. ......................................................................................... We may even write the same field equation as in the previous case: ......................................................................................... As we know, weight P is equal to mass m multiplied
by gravity acceleration g. This equation is quite well known.
.........................................................................................
We also know that in the proximity of mass object M, space is deformed under the action of gravity. ......................................................................................... Let us identify the Cartesian Orthogonal axis as axis G,
which is perpendicular to the three axes of our
three-dimensional space.
.........................................................................................
"Quid prodest?" What for, as the Romans would have said. ......................................................................................... From a Hyperspace point of view, our intuition begins to be stimulated. Our Sun causes four-dimensional space to distort, along with a deformation, on axis G, of
the fourth dimension, in the positive sense. ......................................................................................... Great! ......................................................................................... What would cause a deformation in the negative sense? ......................................................................................... Looking at the universal gravity equation, it becomes quite obvious that a negative mass would cause a negative deformation of our space. ......................................................................................... Excellent! ......................................................................................... Which type of force would result from the interaction of a negative and a positive mass? ......................................................................................... The answer is obvious: repulsion! ......................................................................................... Now we are going to understand the meaning, in terms of physics, of our mathematical contemplation. What could a negative mass possibly be? ......................................................................................... Mere speculation: antimatter. ......................................................................................... And so we come to the conclusion that antimatter repels matter. ......................................................................................... Makes sense. ......................................................................................... Matter and antimatter cannot co-exist together. After the Big Bang, the only way to protect recently created matter against antimatter, also recently developed, is their mutual repellence providing stability, and warranting their mere existence. In all our laboratory experiments, the "creation" of an electron always came along with the "creation" of a positron (anti-electron). These and other experiments make us come to the conclusion that a huge amount of antimatter must have been created after the Big Bang. That makes sense, but where is that antimatter? ......................................................................................... I would answer: in the very Universe where we are, yet kept at distance by repulsive forces. ......................................................................................... I wrote an article on this issue. It was registered at the Cartório de Títulos e Documentos de São José do Rio Preto, Brazil, in early July of 1998, that is before the VLT, the Very Large Telescope, in Chile, entered into operation. In opposition to what the whole scientific community was taking for granted in those days, one of the first achievements of the VLT was the discovery, during the second half of 1998, that Universe is in constant expansion at an increasing speed. A series of three articles based on the VLT´s recent achievements and published by the SCIENTIFIC AMERICAN in January, 1999, announced to the world that the expansion of Universe increases, and not decreases, as was generally accepted before. This fact contradicts Sir Isaac Newton´s Universal Law of Gravitation. The Law of Gravitation should be generalized. To this day, I know of no proposal in that sense. I tried insistently, in vain however, to publish my article. At the present time, that is ten years after I wrote it, it still holds ground-breaking information. You can find it on this website. ......................................................................................... Finally, to evidence that knowledge hits the mind of some selected individuals as a gift, I shall say things which I have had no means to discover, which I have no way to demonstrate, which I have not seen nor heard of. I merely wish to show that Science progresses like intuitive knowledge. This may explain why I invoked the Muse, at the beginning of this article. ......................................................................................... Polymaths try to prove what they already knew. ......................................................................................... In each galaxy of antimatter there are billions of suns irradiating belight (read this website) seething at billions of degrees Kelvin negative!......................................................................................... |